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Qibla (Direction of Prayer)
1)Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Talha that Rafiibn Ishaq, a mawla of the family of ash-Shifa who was known as the mawla of Abu Talha, heard Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, one of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, while he was in Egypt, "By Allah! I don't know how to deal with these lavatories." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When you go to defecate or urinate, do not expose your genitals towards the qibla, and do not put your back to it."
2)Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saw spittle on the wall of the qibla and scraped it off. Then he went up to the people and said, "Do not spit in front of you when you are praying, because Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is in front of you when you pray."
3)Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Rabah and Ubaydullah ibn Abi Abdullah Salman al-Agharr from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "A prayer in this mosque of mine is better than a thousand prayers in any other mosque, except the Masjid al-Haram (in Makka)."
4)Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Do not forbid the female slaves of Allah from (going into) the mosques of Allah.' "
1)Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm that in a letter that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, sent to Amr ibn Hazm it said that no-one should touch the Qur'an unless he was pure.
Malik said, "No-one should carry the Qur'an by its strap, or on a cushion, unless he is pure. If it were permissible to do so, it would also have been permissible to carry it in its cover. This is not because there is something on the hands of the one who carries it by which the Qur'an will be soiled, but because it is disapproved of for someone to carry the Qur'an without being pure out of respect for the Qur'an, and in order to honour it."
Malik said, "The best thing that I have heard about this is the ayat 'None touch it except the purified.' (Sura 56 ayat 79) It ranks with the ayat in Surat Abasa (Sura 80), where Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, says, 'No, it is a reminder, and whoever wishes will remember it. Upon honoured pages, exalted and purified, by the hands of scribes, noble and obedient.' "
2)Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abdullah ibn Sasaca from his father that Abu Said al-Khudri heard a man reciting Surat al-Ikhlas (Sura 112), repeating it over and over again. In the morning he went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and mentioned it to him, as if he thought little of it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Bythe One in whose hand my self is, it is equal to one third of the Qur'an."
3)Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "Abdullah ibn Umar saw me when I was making dua and I was pointing with two fingers, one from each hand, and he forbade me."
4)Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar from Abdullah as-Sunabihi that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The sun rises and with it is a horn of Shaytan and when the sun gets higher the horn leaves it. Then when the sun reaches the meridian the horn joins it and when the sun declines the horn leaves it, and when the sun has nearly set it joins it again." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade prayer at these times.
1)Malik related to me from Zayd ibn Aslam that his father said, "Abdullah and Ubaydullah, the sons of Umar ibn al-Khattab went out with the army to Iraq. On the way home, they passed by Abu Musa al-Ashari who was the amir of Basra. He greeted them and made them welcome, and told them that if there was anything he could do to help them, he would do it. Then he said, 'There is some of the property of Allah which I want to send to the amir al-muminin, so I will lend it to you, and you can buy wares from Iraq and sell them in Madina. Then give the principal to the amir al-muminin, and you keep the profit.' They said that they would like to do it, and so he gave them the money and wrote to Umar ibn al-Khattab to take the money from them. When they came to sell they made a profit, and when they paid the principal to Umar he asked, 'Did he lend everyone in the army the like of what he lent you?' They said, 'No.' Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'He made you the loan, because you are the sons of the amir al-muminin, so pay the principal and the profit.' Abdullah was silent. Ubaydullah said, 'You do not need to do this, amir al-muminin. Had the principal decreased or been destroyed, we would have guaranteed it.' Umar said, 'Pay it.' Abdullah was silent, and Ubaydullah repeated it. A man who was sitting with Umar said, 'Amir al-muminin, better that you make it a qirad. 'Umar said, 'I have made it qirad.' Umar then took the principal and half of the profit, and Abdullah and Ubaydullah, the sons of Umar ibn al-Khattab took half of the profit."
2)ahya said that Malik said, "The person who puts up the principal must not stipulate that he has something of the profit alone without the agent sharing in it, nor must the agent stipulate that he has something of the profit alone without the investor sharing. In qirad, there is no sale, no rent, no work, no advance, and no convenience which one party specifies to himself without the other party sharing unless one party allows it to the other unconditionally as a favour and that is alright to both. Neither of the parties should make a condition over the other which increases him in gold or silver or food over the other party."
He said, "If any of that enters the qirad, it becomes hire, and hire is only good with known and fixed terms. The agent should not stipulate when he takes the principal that he repay or commission anyone with the goods, nor that he take any of them for himself. When there is a profit, and it is time to separate the capital, then they divide the profit according to the terms of the contract. If the principal does not increase or there is a loss, the agent does not have to make up for what he spent on himself or for the loss. That falls to the investor from the principal. Qirad is permitted upon whatever terms the investor and the agent make a mutual agreement, of half the profit, or a third or a fourth or whatever."
Malik said, "It is not permitted for the agent to stipulate that he use the qirad money for a certain number of years and that it not be taken from him during that time."
He said, "It is not good for the investor to stipulate that the qirad money should not be returned for a certain number of years which are specified, because the qirad is not for a term. The investor loans it to an agent to use for him. If it seems proper to either of them to abandon the project and the money is coin, and nothing has been bought with it, it can be abandoned, and the investor takes his money back. If it seems proper to the investor to take the qirad loan back after goods have been purchased with it, he cannot do so until the buyer has sold the goods and they have become money. If it seems proper to the agent to return the loan, and it has been turned to goods he cannot do so until he has sold them. He returns the loan in cash as he took it."
Malik said, "It is not good for the investor to stipulate that the agent pay any zakat due from his portion of the profit in particular, because the investor by stipulating that, stipulates fixed increase for himself from the profit because the portion of zakat he would be liable for by his portion of the profit, is removed from him.
"It is not permitted for the investor to stipulate to the agent to only buy from so-and-so, referring to a specific man. That is not permitted because by doing so he would become his hireling for a wage."
Malik spoke about an investor in qirad who stipulated a guarantee for an amount of money from the agent, "The investor is not permitted to stipulate conditions about his principal other than the conditions on which qirad is based or according to the precedent of the sunna of the Muslims. If the principal is increased by the condition of guarantee, the investor has increased his share of the profit because of the position of the guarantee. But the profit is only to be divided according to what it would have been had the loan been given without the guarantee. If the principal is destroyed, I do not think that the agent has a guarantee held against him because the stipulation of guarantees in qirad is null and void."
Malik spoke about an investor who gave qirad money to a man and the man stipulated that he would only buy palms or animals with it because he sought to eat the dates or the offspring of the animals and he kept them for some time to use for himself. He said, "That is not permitted. It is not the sunna of the Muslims in qirad unless he buys it and then sells it as other goods are sold."
Malik said, "There is no harm in the agent stipulating on the investor a slave to help him provided that the slave stands to gain along with him out of the investment, and when the slave only helps him with the investment, not with anything else."
3)Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor paying qirad money to an agent who made a profit and then wanted to take his share of the profit and the investor was away. He said, "He should not take any of it unless the investor is present. If he takes something from it, he is responsible for it until it is accounted for in the division of the capital."
Malik said, "It is not permitted for the parties involved in a qirad to account and divide property which is away from them until the capital is present, and the investor is given the principal in full. Then they divide the profit into their agreed portions."
Malik spoke about a man taking qirad money, and buying goods with it while he had a debt. His creditors sought and found him while he was in a city away from the investor, and he had profitable merchandise whose good quality was clear. They wanted him to sell the merchandise for them so that they could take his share of the profit. Malik said, "None of the profit of the qirad is taken until the investor is present. He takes his principal and then the profit is divided mutually between them."
Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent and he used it and had a profit. Then the principal was set aside and the profit divided. He took his share and added the share of the investor to his principal in the presence of witnesses he had called. Malik said, "It is not permitted to divide the profit unless the investor is present. If he has taken something here turns it until the investor has received the principal in full. Then what remains is divided into their respective portions."
Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent. The agent used it and then came to the investor and said, "This is your portion of the profit, and I have taken the like of it for myself, and I have retained your principal in full." Malik said, "I do not like that, unless all the capital is present, the principal is there and he knows that it is complete and he receives it. Then they divide the profit between them. He returns the principal to him if he wishes, or he keeps it. The presence of the principal is necessary out of fear that the agent might have lost some of it, and so may want it not to be removed from him and to keep it in his hand."
4)Yahya said that Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent who bought goods with it, and the investor told him to sell them. The agent said that he did not see any way to sell at that time and they quarrelled about it. He said, "One does not look at the statement of either of them. The people of experience and insight concerning such goods are asked about these goods. If they can see anyway of selling them they are sold for them. If they think it is time to wait, they should wait."
Malik spoke about a man who took qirad money from an investor and used it and when the investor asked him for his money, he said that he had it in full. When he held him to his settlement he admitted that "Such-and-such of it was lost with me," and he named an amount of money. "I told you that so that you would leave it with me." Malik said, "He does not benefit by denying it after he had confirmed that he had it all . He is answerable by his confession against himself unless he produces evidence about the loss of that property which confirms his statement. If he does not produce an acceptable reason he is answerable by his confession, and his denial does not avail him."
Malik said, "Similarly, had he said, 'I have had such-and-such a profit from the capital,' and then the owner of the capital asked him to pay him the principal and his profit, and he said that he had not had any profit in it and had said that only so it might be left in his possession, it does not benefit him. He is taken to account for what he affirmed unless he brings acceptable proof of his word, so that the first statement is not binding on him."
Malik spoke about an investor who put qirad money with an agent who made a profit with it. The agent said, "I took the qirad from you provided that I would have two-thirds." The owner of the capital says, "I gave you a qirad provided that you had a third." Malik said, "The word is the word of the agent, and he must take an oath on that if what he says resembles the known practice of qirad or is close to it. If he brings a matter which is unacceptable and people do not make qirads like that, he is not believed, and it is judged to be according to how a qirad like it would normally be."
Malik spoke about a man who gave a man one hundred dinars as a qirad. He bought goods with it and then went to pay the one hundred dinars to the owner of the goods and found that they had been stolen. The investor says, "Sell the goods. If there is anything over, it is mine. If there is a loss, it is against you because you lost it." The agent says, "Rather you must fulfil what the seller is owed. I bought them with your capital which you gave me." Malik said, "The agent is obliged to pay the price to the seller and the investor is told, 'If you wish, pay the hundred dinars to the agent and the goods are between you. The qirad is according to what the first hundred was based on. If you wish, you are free of the goods.' If the hundred dinars are paid to the agent, it is a qirad according to the conditions of the first qirad. If he refuses, the goods belong to the agent and he must pay their price."
Malik spoke about two people in a qirad who settled up and the agent still had some of the goods which he used - threadbare cloth or a waterskin or the like of that. Malik said, "Any of that which is insignificant is of no importance and belongs to the agent. I have not heard anyone give a decision calling for the return of that. Anything which has a price is returned. If it is something which has value like an animal, camel, coarse cloth or the like of that which fetches a price, I think that he should return what he has remaining of such things unless the owner overlooks it."