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1)Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, once mentioned Ramadan and said, "Do not begin the fast until you see the new moon, and do not break the fast (at the end of Ramadan) until you see it. If the new moon is obscured from you, then work out (when it should be)."
2)Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say, "Only some one who makes the intention to fast before dawn (actually) fasts."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that A'isha and Hafsa, the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, also said that.
3)Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utba ibn Masud from Abdullah ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, left for Makka in Ramadan during the year of the conquest, and fasted until he reached al-Kadid. He then broke the fast, and so everyone else did so as well. What people used to do was act according to whatever the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had done most recently.
4)Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the people of knowledge did not disapprove of people fasting using tooth-sticks at any hour of the day in Ramadan, whether at the beginning or the end, nor had he heard any of the people of knowledge disapproving of or forbidding the practice.
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, about fasting for six days after breaking the fast at the end of Ramadan, that he had never seen any of the people of knowledge and fiqh fasting them. He said, "I have not heard that any of our predecessors used to do that, and the people of knowledge disapprove of it and they are afraid that it might become a bida and that common and ignorant people might join to Ramadan what does not belong to it, if they were to think that the people of knowledge had given permission for that to be done and were seen doing it.
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "I have never heard any of the people of knowledge and fiqh and those whom people take as an example forbidding fasting on the day of jumua. Fasting on it is good, and I have seen one of the people of knowledge fasting it, and it seemed to me that he was keen to do so."
1)Yahya related to me from Malik, "The generally agreed upon way of doing things among us and what I have seen the people of knowledge doing in our city about the fixed shares of inheritance of children from the mother or father when one or other of them dies is that if they leave male and female children, the male takes the portion of two females. If there are only females, and there are more than two, they get two thirds of what is left between them. If there is only one, she gets a half. If someone shares with the children, who has a fixed share and there are males among them, the reckoner begins with the ones with fixed shares. What remains after that is divided among the children according to their inheritance.
"When there are no children, grandchildren through sons have the same position as children, so that grandsons are like sons and grand-daughters are like daughters. They inherit as they inherit and they overshadow as they overshadow. If there are both children and grandchildren through sons, and there is a male among the children, then the grandchildren through sons do not share in the inheritance with him.
"If there is no surviving male among the children, and there are two or more daughters, the granddaughters through a son do not share in the inheritance with them unless there is a male who is in the same position as them in relation to the deceased, or further than them. His presence gives access to whatever is left over, if any, to whoever is in his position and whoever is above him of the granddaughters through sons. If something is left over, they divide it among them, and the male takes the portion of two females. If nothing is left over, they have nothing.
"If the only descendant is a daughter, she takes half, and if there are one or more grand-daughters through a son who are in the same position to the deceased, they share a sixth. If there is a male in the same position as the granddaughters through a son in relation to the deceased, they have no share and no sixth .
"If there is a surplus after the allotting of shares to the people with fixed shares, the surplus goes to the male and whoever is in his position and whoever is above him of the female descendants through sons. The male has the share of two females. The one who is more distant in relationship than grandchildren through sons has nothing. If there is no surplus, they have nothing. That is because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'Allah charges you about your children that the male has the like of the portion of two females. If there are more than two women they have two thirds of what is left. If there is one, she has a half.' (Sura 4 ayat 10)
2)Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us is that full siblings do not inherit anything with sons nor anything with grandsons through a son, nor anything with the father. They do inherit with the daughters and the granddaughters through a son when the deceased does not leave a paternal grandfather. Any property that is left over, they are in it as paternal relations. One begins with the people who are allotted fixed shares. They are given their shares. If there is anything left over after that, it belongs to the full siblings. They divide it between themselves according to the Book of Allah, whether they are male or female. The male has a portion of two females. If there is nothing left over, they have nothing.
"If the deceased does not leave a father or a paternal grandfather or children or male or female grandchildren through a son, a single full sister gets a half. If there are two or more full sisters, they get two thirds. If there is a brother with them, sisters, whether one or more, do not have a fixed share. One begins with whoever shares in the fixed shares. They are given their shares. Whatever remains after that goes to the full siblings. The male has the portion of two females except in one case, in which the full siblings have nothing. They share in this case the third of the half-siblings by the mother. That case is when a woman dies and leaves a husband, a mother, half-siblings by her mother, and full siblings. The husband has a half. The mother has one sixth. The half-siblings by the mother have a third. Nothing is left after that, so the full siblings share in this case with the half-siblings by the mother in their third. The male has the portion of two females in as much as all of them are siblings of the deceased by the mother. They inherit by the mother. That is because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'If a man or a woman has no direct heir and he has a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth. If there are more than that, they share equally in the third. ' (Sura 4 ayat 12) . They therefore share in this case because all of them are siblings of the deceased by the mother."
3)Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing things among us in which there is no dispute and which I saw the people of knowledge in our citydoing, is that the child of the half-sibling by the mother, the paternal grandfather, the paternal uncle who is the maternal half-brother of the father, the maternal uncle, the great-grandmother who is the mother of the mother's father, the daughter of the full-brother, the paternal aunt, and the maternal aunt do not inherit anything by their kinship."
Malik said, "The woman who is the furthest relation of the deceased of those who were named in this book, does not inherit anything by her kinship, and women do not inherit anything apart from those that are named in the Qur'an. Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, mentioned in His Book the inheritance ofthe mother from her children, the inheritance of the daughters from their father, the inheritance of the wife from her husband, the inheritance of the full sisters, the inheritance of the half-sisters by the father and the inheritance of the half-sisters by the mother. The grandmother is made an heir by the example of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made about her. A woman inherits from a slave she frees herself because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'They are your brothers in the deen and your mawali.' "
4)Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said about the child of lian and the child of fornication, that if they died, the mother inherited her right from them according to the Book of Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic! The siblings by the mother had their rights. The rest was inherited by the former masters of the mother if she was a freed slave. If she was a free woman by origin, she inherited her due and the siblings by the mother inherited their due, and the rest went to the Muslims.
Malik said, "I heard the same as that from Sulayman ibn Yasar."
Malik said, "That is what I saw the people of knowledge in our city doing."
1)Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "If a man frees his share of a slave and has enough money to cover the full price of the slave justly evaluated for him, he must buy out his partners so that the slave is completely freed. If he doesn't have the money, he partially frees him.
Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things among us in the case of slave whose master makes a bequest to free part of him - a third, a fourth, a half, or any share after his death, is that only the portion of him is freed that his master has named. This is because the freeing of that portion is only obliged to take place after the death of the master because the master has the option to withdraw the bequest as long as he lives. When the slave is freed from his master, the master is a testator and the testator only has access to free what he can take from his property, being the third of the property he is allowed to bequeath, and the rest of the slave is not free because the man's property has gone out of his hands. How can the rest of the slave which belongs to other people be free when they did not initiate the setting free and did not confirm it and they do not have the wala' established for them? Only the deceased could do that. He was the one who freed him and the one for whom the wala' was confirmed. That is not to be borne by another's property unless he bequeaths within the third of his property what remains of a lave to be freed. That is a request against his partners and inheritors and the partners must not refuse the slave that when it is within the third of the dead man's property because there is no harm in that to the inheritors."
Malik said, "If a man frees a third of his slave while he is critically ill, he must complete the emancipation so all of him is free from him, if it is within the third of his property that he has access to, because he is not treated in the same way as a man who frees a third of a slave after his death, because had the one who freed a third of his slave after his death lived, he could have cancelled it and the slave's being set free would be of no effect. The master who made the freeing of the third of the slave irrevocable in his illness, would still have to free all of him if he lived. If he died, the slave would be set free within the third of the bequest. That is because the command of the deceased is permissible in his third as the command of the healthy is permissible in all his property."
2)Malik related to me that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar was asked whether a slave could be bought on the specific condition that it was to be used to fulfil the obligation of freeing a slave, and he said, "No."
Malik said, "That is the best of what I have heard on the obligation of freeing slaves. Someone who has to set a slave free because of an obligation on him, may not buy one on the condition that he sets it free because if he does that, whatever he buys is not completely a slave because he has reduced its price by the condition he has made of setting it free."
Malik added, "There is no harm, however, in someone buying a person expressly to set him free."
Malik said, "The best of what I have heard on the obligation of freeing slaves is that it is not permitted to free a christian or a jew to fulfil it, and one does not free a mukatab or a mudabbar or an umm walad or a slave to be freed after a certain number of years, or a blind person. There is no harm in freeing a christian, jew, or magian voluntarily, because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, 'either as a favour then or by ransom,' (Sura 47 ayat 4) The favour is setting free."
Malik said, "As for obligations of freeing slaves which Allah has mentioned in the Book, one only frees a mumin slave for them."
Malik said, "It is like that in feeding poor people for kaffara. One must only feed muslims and one does not feed anyone outside of the deen of Islam."
3)Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Hazm from Abd al-Malik ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham that his father told him that al-Asi ibn Hisham had died and left three sons, two by one wife and one by another wife. One of the two with the same mother died and left property and mawali. His full brother inherited his property and the wala' of his mawali. Then he also died, and left as heirs his son and his paternal half brother. His son said, "I obtain what my father inherited of property and the wala' of the mawali." His brother said, "It is not like that. You obtain the property. As for the wala' of the mawali, it is not so. Do you think that had it been my first brother who died today, I would not have inherited from him?" They argued and went to Uthman ibn Affan. He gave a judgement that the brother had the wala' of the mawali.
4)Malik related to me that he had asked Ibn Shihab about a slave who was released. He said, "He gives his wala' to whomever he likes. If he dies and has not given his wala' to anyone, his inheritance goes to the muslims and his blood-money is paid by them."
Malik said, "The best of what has been heard about a slave who is released is that no one gets his wala', and his inheritance goes to the muslims, and they pay his blood-money."
Malik said that when the slave of a jew or christian became muslim and he was freed before being sold, the wala' of the freed slave went to the muslims. If the jew or christian became muslim afterwards, the wala' did not revert to him. "
He said, "However, if a jew or christian frees a slave from their own deen, and then the freed one becomes muslim before the jew or christian who freed him becomes muslim and then the one who freed him has become muslim, his wala' reverts to him because the wala' was confirmed for him on the day he freed him."
Malik said that the muslim child of a jew or christian inherited the mawali of his jewish or christian father when the freed mawla became muslim before the one who freed him became muslim. If the freed one was already muslim when he was freed, the muslim children of the christian or jew had nothing of the wala' of a muslim slave because the jew and the christian did not have the wala'. The wala' of a muslim slave went to the community of muslims.