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Madni and Makkan Surrahs
According to majority of Islamic scholars Makkan Surrahs are those which where revealed on Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) before the Migration. No matter they where revealed out side Makkah or not. And Madni Surrahs are considered those which where revealed after the Migration until the death of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). Total number of Makkan Surrahs is 87, while 27 are Madni Surrahs.
In these two types of Surrahs there is difference of way of expression, their meaning, and their basis. For example the Surrahs revealed in Makkah mostly are on the need of religion Islam and the basic Islamic rules and code of life. While the Madni Surrahs deals with: Prayers, daily workings, Hilal and Harram (Do and Don'ts), etc.
Importance of Makkan Surrahs:
Makkan Surrahs mostly explains the need of religion and basic Islamic laws. On oneness of Allah, Prophecy and Life after death are the topics mostly covered. The basic teachings to differentiate Islam with other religions are so simply explained that any one can understand them with out any problem. The real stories of some previous nations are also very simply explained to make people fear from what Allah do His non-believers. Makkan Surrahs mostly consists of small Ayahs (Quranic Verses).
Importance of Madni Surrahs:
Madni Surrahs mostly targets already Muslims and those who believe on previous Prophets (like Jesus (a.s) etc). That is why these people understand them more clearly. At some places Quran is represented to be true ascender of previous Holy books (Bible etc). The signs of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w), which where in those Holy Books are also re-told. Madni Surrahs also explains about topics like, Khiraj, Jazeeha, Kassas, etc.